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Technical Glossaries




Guns and Ammo


Optical Microscopy


microbiology translation
Microbiology Glossary

Part 1 - German terms with English translations.

See Grammatical Notes for an explanation of column 2.

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English Comments
Breakdown; degradation; decomposition  
Abbildungsmassstab   Magnification  
abfackeln   Burn off ; flare off Means of disposal of flammable gas
Ablassventil   Drain valve  
Abluft   Exhaust air  
Absetzbecken   Settling pond Settling basin
Absterbephase   Death phase  
Abtötungskonstante   Death rate constant  
Abtötungsrate   Death rate  
Abwasser   Wastewater; sewage  
Wastewater treatment  
Acetessigsäure   Acetoacetic acid Not acetic acid! CH3COCH2COOH
Acetoin   Acetoin CH3-CHOH-CO-CH3
Aceton-Butanol-Gärung   Acetone-butanol fermentation Also known as ‘butylacetonic fermentation’
Acetylierung   Acetylation  
Acidophil   Acidophile Microorganism growing at low pH (2-4)
Acidophilic Can grow at pH < 4
Aconitsäure   Aconitic acid 1-propene-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid; carboxymethyl succinic acid
Actinomyceten   Actinomycetes  
ADP   ADP Adenosine diphosphate
ADRAP   ADRAP 5-amino-2,6-dihydroxy-4-(5’-phosphoribitylamino)-pyrimidine
AEC   AEC S-(2-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine
Aerobic Grows best in oxygen
Affinity chromatography  
Agar   Agar Complex polysaccharide from marine algae; primarily a polymer of D-galactose and anhydrogalactose units. Used to solidify microbial nutrient media. When part of the name of a culture medium, it indicates that the medium has been solidified by adding 1.5-2% agar. These media can be melted at 100°C and poured into plates or tubes, after which they solidify at about 45°C.
Ähnlichkeitskoeffizient   Similarity coefficient; S-value Ratio of identical features to the total number of features checked
AICAR (Aminoimidazolcarboxamidribotid)   AICAR Aminoimidazolecarboxamide ribotide Intermediate in amino acid synthesis
AICARP   AICARP 5-amino-1-(5’-phosphoriboslyl)-imidazol-4-carboxamide
AIRP   AIRP 1-(5’-phosphoribosyl)-5-aminoimidazole
A-Kohle   Activated carbon (activated charcoal) Adsorbent
Akridinorange   Acridine Orange Also: Basic Orange; Euchrysine
Activated charcoal Possibly activated carbon, but usually charcoal, because it has a particularly great specific surface (area/gram)
f, -, -n
Alga, algae Single-celled green plants
Ames-Test   Ames test Test for mutagenic activity, using bacteria
Ameisensäure   Formic acid HCOOH
Amöbenruhr   Amebic dysentery Pathogen: Entamoeba histolytica
AMP   AMP Adenosine monophosphate; adenylic acid
Amperometric Refers to analysis by measurement of current; common for dissolved oxygen (also called ‘galvanic’ or, more commonly but not technically correctly, ‘polarographic’).
Amphitrichous Having several flagellae at each end of the bacterial cell
Anaerobic Grows best without oxygen
Anaerobier   Anaerobe An organism that grows best, or only, in the absence of oxygen
Analytical balance The term usually implies sensitivity of 0.1 mg.
Anaplerotic Anaplerotic reactions produce intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle
Animpfung   Inoculation Initiation of microbial growth by adding an ‘inoculum’.
Anchor stirrer Anchor agitator(describes the shape of the stirrer)
Anlaufphase   Lag phase Period after inoculation and before exponential (log) growth.
anlegen   Prepare (a culture medium)  
Anreicherungskultur   Enrichment culture Culture in a medium (or under conditions) which promote growth of one species over others
Ansatz   Preparation; solution; Solution; lot; batch; trial or test solution (etc.)
Ansatzkessel   Reservoir Feed tank
Undemanding Without specific nutritional (or environmental) requirements
Antischaummittel   Antifoam (agent)  
Aperturblende   Aperture diaphragm of a microscope condenser
Apfelsäure   Malic acid  
Apo   Apo Apochromatic (lens; especially a microscope objective)
Arbeitsanweisung   Procedure SOP: Standard Operating Procedure
Archaebakterien   Archaebacteria Bacteria which withstand extreme environments
Aromaverbesserung   Flavor enhancement  
Ascorbinsäure   Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)
Ascospore   Ascospore  
Aspartam ®   Aspartame ® L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester; artificial sweetener
Atmungskette   Respiratory chain Series of enzymes which passes electrons to oxygen molecules (normally with generation of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation)
Atmungskettenphosphorylierung   Oxidative phosphorylation Use of energy from oxidation to produce ‘high-energy phosphates’ such as ATP
Atmungsrate   Respiratory rate Rate of oxygen consumption
ATP   ATP Adenosine triphosphate
Attenuation   Attenuation  
Aufarbeitung   Processing (Workup). Process(es) following fermentation; product recovery; processing
Auffanggefäss   Collection vessel  
Aufhellung   Clearing  
Auflicht   Incident light Applies particularly to microscopy
Auflösung   Resolution of a microscope: ability to see fine structure
Auflösungsvermogen   Resolving power of a microscope
Aufschluss   Disintegration  
Ausbeute   Yield  
Ausfallrate   Failure rate E. g., failure rates for sensors during sterilization
Auslaugen   Leaching In microbiology, dissolving metals from rock (ore, tailings)
Ausprägung   Expression Structure or activity resulting from genetic structure
Aussalzen   To salt out Precipitate protein by adding a neutral salt (e. g., ammonium sulfate)
Aussatz   Leprosy  (Hansen’s disease) Pathogen: Mycobacterium leprae
Ausstrich   Smear Like a ‘streak’, but may be from a cotton swab, etc.
Ausstrich   Streak Inoculation of a sterile solid medium (usually in a Petri plate) from another culture using a loop or needle. The loop or needle is touched to the source culture, then swept across the surface of the sterile medium several times. Then several sweeps are made across those lines, and several more sweeps across the new ones, to dilute the original culture enough that individual cells produce separate colonies.
Autoklav   Autoclave Device for sterilizing with steam under pressure
Autoclave jacket Steam jacket surrounding the chamber in which sterilization is done.
Autotrophic Able to grow on inorganic (mineral) media (able to use carbon dioxide as a carbon source).
Auxotroph   Auxotroph An organism which cannot grow on a ‘minimal’ medium (e. g., mineral salts and glucose) without addition of one or more specific supplements (e. g., a specific amino acid).
AWWA   AWWA American Water Works Association

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